Salvation Series 5, When?

Salvation Series 5: When?

It is a fact that indeed “we are saved by faith“. As Heb. 11:6 states, “But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is…”

And, there is no other way; Jesus is the only “way, the truth and the life“(John 14:6). The “faith of Jesus” as in Rom. 3:21-22,  (not his works of the Law, Gal. 2:16) started it all and then for us to follow his lead, i.e., “from faith to faith” (Rom. 1:17). Without faith “began” and initiated by Jesus(Heb. 12:2), our faith would not matter an iota. And this is by the grace of God that this formula for salvation was established, even before the foundation of the worlds ( see John 3:16, Rev. 13:8 and I Pet. 1:20). However, a common folly is to stretch the phrase “we are saved by faith” to mean “right then and there”; immediately and not future. When do we really “get saved”? Does going to “heaven or hell” follow right away after death? The verses used to support this position are:

A. Thief on the cross:

Luke 23:42-43 “And he was saying, “Jesus, remember me when You come in Your kingdom!” And He said to him, “Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise.”

The prevailing error in interpretation of this verse can be explained away by acknowledging that at death, the “psyche” or “spirit” of man, the “breath of life” goes back to the Creator. Not, the psyche and the body; the spirit-component only and not together with the matter-component of man. Jesus’ dead body, the matter-component, and that of the thief, did not go to “paradise” but were buried in the grave(hades) the same day of crucifixion and before sunset preceding the high-day Sabbath. It was their “psyche/spirit of man” that went to “paradise”, back to the Father where they belong. Simply put, the two components of man are accounted for, the body and the psyche(spirit, breath of life). But, only one component, the spirit/psyche, went to “paradise”, a place where the Father is. There went Jesus’ spirit and that of the thief’s , as in “today you shall be with me in paradise”. Strictly speaking, both were still dead at that time, with their dead bodies in the grave except that Jesus was resurrected 3 days and 3 nights after burial, stayed alive and forever. Jesus’ psyche/spirit went back from the Father to his “uncorrupted flesh body” (Ps. 16:10; Acts 2:31) in the grave, and his flesh-body then changed into a “glorious body“, one that can be seen as flesh but changeable to spirit-composed body “in a twinkling of an eye”. Remember that Jesus’ resurrected body was visible as flesh to the women who went to his grave to bring spices (compare Jn. 20:14-17; Mk. 16 and Luke 24). Also, angels who are spirit-composed can be visible as flesh and invisible as well(see Gen. 18). This is the same mechanism for the resurrection of the “dead in Christ” at “first resurrection” where the “psyche/spirit” of the dead that was with the Father returns to visible re-composed flesh visible but “glorious body” which is changeable to spirit-composed in a “twinkling of an eye”. On the other hand, those who are alive at the return of Jesus on earth and first resurrection , with the spirit of man in them still, will be changed to a glorious body in a “twinkling of an eye” (ICor 15:52).

B. Parable of Lazarus and Rich Man:Luke 16:19-31

The assumption in this parable is that Lazarus immediately went to “heaven” and that the Rich man went to Gehenna fire. Did they immediately go to their eventual destination after death? Let us be reminded of John 3:13: “No one has ascended to heaven but He who came down from heaven, that is, the Son of Man who is in heaven”(maybe translated as having been in heaven). Joseph’s bones were still in the grave and had to be exhumed to be taken back from Egypt  to the “land of promise”, as in,

Gen. 50:25-26″And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence. So Joseph died, being an hundred and ten years old: and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.” The children of Israel fulfilled that request (Exodus 13:19; Joshua 24:32).

Even Abraham did not go to heaven after death, as in Heb. 11:13 “These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. ” Clearly, no one who ever died went to “heaven”, except Jesus. Also, please consider the following verses:

“For the living know that they will die; but the dead know nothing” (Eccl.9:5).

“… for there is no work or device or knowledge or wisdom in the grave where you are going” (Eccl.9:10).

“His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish”(Psalm 146:4)

The preceding 3 verses attest to the fact that the dead “know nothing”, “his thoughts perish” and that “there is no work or device or knowledge or wisdom in the grave”, referring to the matter-component of man. The “psyche, spirit of man or the breath of life” has all the identity, memories and composite of that particular person, although non-functional without a body to work with. It  cannot see, hear, speak, do anything without a body, whether matter or spirit-composed. As James 2:26 further proves, “… the body without the spirit is dead….”

Taking all these into consideration, the narrative about Lazarus and the rich man had to occur when they were resurrected. It has to be post-resurrection with a physical body because the rich man has eyes to “see Abraham afar off” and cry, sensation to feel torment, tongue to speak as they were communicating to each other. Also, since the first resurrection involves the “firstfruits” of the Holy Spirit who are “glorious spirit-composed bodies”, then this resurrection of Lazarus and the rich man presumably has to be at the second resurrection with “flesh-composed bodies”. The resurrected Lazarus “in the bosom of Abraham”, while the resurrected rich man experiencing the “torment of fire”. This event is described in John 5:28-29, Christ said: “Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear His voice and come forth—those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation [judgment].” Those “resurrected flesh” (come forth) who believed in Christ will receive the promise of the in-dwelling of the Spirit to experience the “bringing forth of fruits” and who “have done good” will have eternal life with immortal and spirit-composed bodies. Those who did not have faith and instead rejected Him, inspite of this availability of the Holy Spirit to them, will be thrown in the Gehenna fire/lake of fire and suffer the eternal death, killing the “body/soma” and the “spirit/psyche” forever.

C. Slain souls under the altar

Rev. 6:9-11″And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellow servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.
These verses are interpreted to presumably mean that even when they are dead, they are still alive and can “speak”. Notice that they were to “rest” in “sleep/death”(1 Corinthians 15:51-52) until there brethren were also slain. They are in a state of having been “slain” and will stay slain and dead-asleep “yet for a little season until their fellow servants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.”  Notice that they were slain, dead/asleep. This word translated “soul” has to refer to the “psyche,spirit of man, breath of life”, as the Greek origin is,  that left the body at death. While they have memories and composite of the person, it does not have a body that can “speak” as resurrection with a body for them has not yet occurred. Without a tongue in a body to speak, it just is incapable of actually speaking. This interpretation can be the correct rendering of this narrative, as in In Heb. 11:4 “By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh“. Notice, “being dead yet speak”, by it, meaning “in faith” although not actually speaking. Similarly, “they cried with a loud voice” in Rev 6:9 can mean the same way, as though the dead can “speak”, an allegory.

From the preceding Salvation Series 4 How?, one can see that salvation is a process and it does not come to fruition until the process completes itself. Faith is the basic ingredient towards fulfillment of salvation. It is required to go through this process. First and foremost is the “faith of Jesus”, without which “our faith”, although required, becomes inconsequential. As man-Jesus’ faith got him the gift of the Holy Spirit from the Father coming out of the water at Jordan river, so was this HS, after Jesus’resurrection, sent to us, through Jesus, by the Father to receive because of having “our faith“. No one gets this gift of Holy Spirit without us having faith in God.  This is why we are “saved by faith”.

But, when do we actually get “saved”. Salvation Series 1:What?, expounds on the the subject of “what” salvation really means, what are we being “saved” from. It explains and gives an inkling of when. It is when we, the followers of Christ, have “glorious bodies”, are “spirit-composed” at the first or as an aftermath of the second resurrection, i.e., being “born again“. As such, all of us can then say “death, where is thy sting?” (I Cor. 15:55). Yes, death will have no power on us, being immortal at that time, and we will have eternal life, being “one” with Christ and the Father.


The answer as to when we finally get saved is at the time we receive “immortality“, having been changed from mortal to “glorious bodies”/spirit-bodies(1 Corinthians 15:51-52). Strictly speaking , a resurrected flesh-body and spirit of man “clothe” with a new “spirit-composed home”. Our “soma” and “psyche” will no longer be “naked“; it will be “covered“. But, not just having “spirit-bodies” and immortality like angelic beings. Additionally, because of the power of the Spirit of God in us, we have developed “wisdom” to decide between “good and evil“, unlike the angels with the third of them gone awry. Angelic species has already been created and not anymore again. We will then be the “new creation“, planned from the foundation of this world, different from and higher than angels. The “world to come” will “not be subjected again to angels”(Heb. 2:5), but to the newly created “sons of God” with Jesus as Son of God. As the Spirit of God in Jesus made him “one” with the Father, with the same Spirit of God so shall we be “one” with the Son and Father. This is the “gospel of the kingdom of God” traced even in the narrative intimated at the garden of Eden. Adam & Eve did not “eat the fruit of the tree of life” available to them but chose instead the “fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil”. They wanted to be “like him” (the Creator YHVH) through their own efforts, as in taking the forbidden fruit, and ended instead to die. While their choice to become “like him” was correct, the mechanism to achieve that goal was wrong. They cannot be “like YHVH” by themselves. It was through another man, Jesus the YHVH incarnate, that this will be achieved. As Adam and Eve died, so did Jesus, the only chosen man, the Passover, choose to die. Salvation Series 4 How?, explains this concept in detail.

Original post: October 4, 2015
Revised and posted:February 20, 2017

Salvation Series 4 How?

Salvation Series 4 How?

Truly, we are “saved by faith” which started with the “faith of Jesus” in the promises of the Father that they will all be fulfilled. Jesus’ faith in the Father is first and foremost, without which, “the faith of Abraham and ours”, while needed for salvation, becomes inconsequential, because it has to be started first and foremost only by Christ.  Be reminded that as Rom. 1:17 says, “from faith to faith“. Jesus, the Creator-Word (Jn. 1:1) is the “beginner(founder) and finisher(perfecter) of our salvation as in Heb. 12:2 looking to Jesus, the founder and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is seated at the right hand of the throne of God”. 

Righteousness that is required by the Father for salvation is the “righteousness of faith”, not of works, (even by Jesus’ following the Ten Commandments), so that “no one can boast”. However, being saved by faith, is only a basic foundational start and initiates a mechanism in the process of how we reach the goal of salvation. As a process, salvation takes time to unravel towards its fulfillment. Time is needed for our spiritual growth and development (Isa. 26:17; Rev. 12:4-17) in the “church” as much as an embryo has to physically develop and grow before coming out of the womb.  And, Jesus is central to achieving this by the grace of God the Father.

Proof that Salvation to see the Kingdom of God is a process:

It has been taught that by respectable and well-meaning preachers that “just believe and you will be saved”. This is factually true but the context is lost because the emphasis stops from the word “believe” and marginalizes the futuristic promise of “will be saved”. What was glossed over was that salvation is a process that starts with man-Jesus and will find conclusion with humanity.

Jesus’ explanation to Nicodemus about this process is revealing. Notice the discussion:

John 3:1-8 (NIV) “Now there was a Pharisee, a man named Nicodemus who was a member of the Jewish ruling council. He came to Jesus at night and said, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the signs you are doing if God were not with him.”

Jesus replied, “Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again.”

“How can someone be born when they are old?” Nicodemus asked. “Surely they cannot enter a second time into their mother’s womb to be born!”
Jesus answered, “Very truly I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless they are born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, ‘You must be born again.’ The wind blows wherever it pleases. You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone born of the Spirit.”

From the above narrative, one sees that Jesus acknowledged that being born of water, i.e., “flesh gives birth to flesh” is a process. That, it takes a process of fertilization of the ovum by the sperm to develop into a zygote, then development into maturity for about 8-9 months in the womb before delivery as a newborn flesh-baby. Similarly, being born of the Spirit (Spirit gives birth to spirit) is a process that follows the same stages, i.e., the “Holy Spirit” of God has to “fertilize” the “spirit of man” (psyche/mind), go through the process of development in the “womb of the church” through sanctification and guidance of the Holy Spirit of God, bear fruits and develop wisdom, before delivery into an immortal glorious-spirit body at resurrection. As physical development in the womb may not come to maturity and can be “aborted“, so can spiritual development in the church may not come to fruition (not overcomers) and although “written in the book of life” to be partakers of the Holy Spirit (Rev. 3:5; 17:8; 20:15; 22:19; Phil. 4:3) may not “bear fruits of the Holy Spirit” and miss out for failure to be “overcomers” to the end.  

Any “good works, decision or righteousness” that come from our “fleshwithout the guidance of and coming from the Holy Spirit are as “filthy rags” and as “dung” to God (Isa. 64:6;Rom. 3:10; Phil. 3:8-9). Even Job has to be “lectured” by God that while “perfect” on his own, that he was still dirty in the eyes of Go (Read the whole book of Job). Our righteousness is the righteousness of faith that started with faith “of” Jesus for which he received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit then given to the faithful to bear “fruits of the Holy Spirit“, not fruits of our flesh. It has to be God’s fruits through the Holy Spirit in us, and not our own fruits that come from flesh. One can deny or reject the guidance of the Holy Spirit, because freedom of choice is key to the development of wisdom and to be “one” with the Father. Even Jesus with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, has to correctly choose between “his” will and that of the Father’s (Matt. 26:39; Lu.22:42) to be “one” with Him. 

Salvation follows the process of:

1. Faith of Jesus in the Father regarding promises made to him from  the foundation of the world; an unwritten covenant between the two. Jesus at that time was known as the Creator God in Genesis 1, the YHVH Elohim/Lord God in Genesis 2, Logos in John 1:1. Whereas, the identity of the Father was Ancient of Days. The Father-Son declarative relationship was planned but not established until the New Testament times. This was an unwritten covenant between him and the Father. This covenant was intimated through Abraham, Isaac and Jacob but actually a covenant, not to them directly, but to the seed according to Paul (Gal. 3:16). With the surety of fulfillment of the promise of the Father to him, anchored on the “faith of Jesus“(Creator), he then gave an inkling of this promise to Abraham, “the righteousness of faith”, with which promises are based on, by grace and love of the Father. YHVH (Jesus) then re-promised” to others what will happen in the future through and only through Him (Jesus). That promise of the Father was the good news of the kingdom of God“. Yes, the kingdom of God composed of immortal sons and daughters of God , beginning with the Son of God(Jesus), “then many sons to glory” manifested at the second  coming of  Jesus (Rom. 8:19-25).

2. Incarnation of the Creator God of Genesis 1, the YHVH Elohim/Lord God in Genesis 2, the Logos in John 1:1. into man-Jesus. Without this incarnation from immortal spirit to mortal flesh/body, his death would not have been realized. He had to be mortal flesh to die.

3. Death of the Passover Lamb/Jesus for the “remission of sins through shedding of his blood (Heb. 9:22). His death substitutes for man’s death and reconciles mankind to the Father, as in:

2 Corinthians 5:18-21 (NKJV) Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation, that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation. Now then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God. For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.”

The death of man-Jesus (the Creator God) was substitutionary to pay the penalty of human’s sin (2nd eternal-death), for mankind to be reconciled to the Father. The goal of his death is for remission of sins, for reconciliation with the Father, nothing more; his death did not proximately and actually save us. Had he not been resurrected by the Father, Jesus could have died eternally and we are still dead in sin” (I Cor 15:17).

4. Jesus’ resurrection to claim the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father.
He said in John 16:17, But very truly I tell you, it is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Advocate will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. Because of the Father’s promise of resurrection and the faith of Jesus in him, he was made alive. Having been resurrected to life, we “shall be saved by his life“(Rom 5:10;his post-resurrection). Notice, the phrase “shall be saved”, meaning future, not yet, or still in the process of salvation. But, how are we going to “be saved by his life”, his resurrected life? Remember Jn 16:7; 15:26; 14:16? He was resurrected for this very purpose, i.e., to receive the promised Holy Spirit to be given and dwell in us, for us to “be endowed”with power to overcome the Devil, starting at Pentecost (Luke 24:49; Acts 1:4; Gal 3:14). We received this Holy Spirit not by (our) works of the law but by “faith of Jesus” (Gal 3:2).

5. Faith or evidence, then Believe.

With these events that were learned by the disciples and apostles, we now understand and have faith in Jesus. Rom. 10:17, “Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word about Christ.”  Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen (Heb 11:1). Faith is not trust nor hope; it is evidence or substance. Hearing and seeing the works of Jesus lead to development of our faith in Him and subsequently we believe in the promises he made. Abraham is the “father of the faithful”(Rom. 4:16) because he saw evidence or proof of God’s power; then he believed in his promises. Faith is evidence-based that emanates trust and hope.

6. In-dwelling of the Holy Spirit of power in us.
With us having faith/evidence, we then believed and are now given this gift of the Holy Spirit by grace. As Acts 2:38 connotes, one has to believe in Jesus’ sacrifice for the remission of sins, repent and be baptized with water, and the gift of the Holy Spirit will be given. Where does the Holy Spirit dwell in us?
Remember the tabernacle and the temple ? These were the places that God manifest himself as the Shekinah glory”. His abode to show his presence. Notice though the temporary nature of all of these. The tabernacle had to be pitched from one place to another along the span of Israel’s journey. This was replaced by the 1st Temple in Jerusalem and then the 2nd Temple. It was in the holy of holies“,  (the innermost partition) of the Temple that God manifests his presence. Both temples are now destroyed. All these temporal nature of his abode reflects on the future in-dwelling of God in the mind of humans, in the spirit-of-man. Notice what the Bible said that God does not dwell in temples made by human hands, as in;

Acts 7:44-,”Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the wilderness, as he had appointed, speaking unto Moses, that he should make it according to the fashion that he had seen. Which also our fathers that came after brought in with Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David; Who found favour before God, and desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob. But Solomon built him an house. Howbeit the most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands; as saith the prophet, Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool: what house will ye build me? saith the Lord: or what is the place of my rest? Hath not my hand made all these things?Notice that Solomon “built him a house“, as the Son of God is building a “house“(church) that is spiritually composed.

Acts 17:24, God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands”

2 Cor. 3:3 You show that you are a letter from Christ, the result of our ministry, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts.

The preceding verses intimated the future dwelling of God in humans. This occurred for the first time to man-Jesus(I Tim. 2:5), the precursor, the forerunner“(Heb. 6:20) towards the development of a new creation/creature(2 Cor. 5:17) and manifestation of the “Son of God” and others as well(Rom. 8:19-25).

7. Sanctification and Development of Fruits of the Spirit as expressed in the obedience to the Ten Commandments, guided by the Holy Spirit.
Why do we need the Holy Spirit? As circumcision is a sign, the HS serves as aseal” to identify us being in the body of Christ (Jn 6:7; 2Cor.1:21-22; 5:5; EpEph 1:13-14; 4:30. Aside from that, we need “spirit-power as the flesh is weak”, (Matt 26:41). We need the Holy Spirit of power to be used by us to express and bear thefruits of the Spirit” (Gal.5:22-23). The HS gives us cognition” as to which way to go or do, “conviction” to follow Jesus'(YHVH ELOHIM’s) Law, and “affection” for him and whatever is “good“, giving us the mind of Christ (I Cor 2:16). Also, Matt. 7:19-20 states that “Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.

That said, according to Paul, “the Law is holy (Rom 7:12, v-14,v-23); nothing wrong with the Law and the Covenant. What was wrong was us, the flesh-nature that we have, that is weak“. Remember that in Genesis, YHVH made man (from dust) after his image”, and in the future to be like him’. But that clay” was flesh and “weak” so Adam could not be “like him” by his own works“. It has to be by the “works and faith of Jesus”.

Adam, not knowing his “weakness“, did not “listen and follow” God, so he sinned and was banished from the garden of Eden”. Adam was separated from God and needs to be reconciled. Having been reconciled by Christ’s death, we are now “being saved by his life through the function and power of the Holy Spirit given to us as promised, tobring many sons to glory” (Heb 2:10).

Therefore, with the power of the Holy Spirit, follow the Ten Commandments as part of our process of sanctification (I Cor 6:11; Rom 8:9-11; 15:15-16; 2 Cor 1:21-22; Eph 1:13-14; 2 Thes 2:13; itus 3:4-7; I Pet 1:1-2; 2:9-12; John 17:17; Rom 6:19-22; 8:5-14; Gal. 5:16-24;I Pet 2:11; Rom 2:6-7).

8. Eventual salvation from 2nd death. This requires a change from mortal flesh to immortal bodies. Notice, I Cor. 15:52, “In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we (who are alive) shall be changed.”

Only when we have immortal bodies
can we say in 1 Corinthians 15:55-57
O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.  And this is when salvation is realized.

By the way, all these things have been all along planned by God the Father.

While the Son started it, a well-established truth is that it was the Father who planned all and the Son that executes the plan. This truth is proven by :
But when the fulness of the time was come, God (Father) sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.(Galatians 4:4-6). The Father did not just do the “sending” but also established the “time” when the Son will be sent or incarnate through “a woman“(Mary).

Even all creation, while actually done by the Logos/Creator God/YHVH (just saying the “word”) was also because of and planned by the Father (I Cor. 8:6; Jn.1:3; Col. 1:16).

Moreover, Peter and Jude confirmed that it was the Father who orchestrated salvation in the covenant. Election, and foreknowledge (I Pet. 1:2), and Sanctification (Jude 1) refer to the initial act of God whereby He chose those whom He loved and set them apart to salvation before the foundation of the world.
God(the Father) foreknew people,For whom He did foreknow” (Rom. 8:29). God’s choice of a people before the world began was based on His own initiative to establish a covenant relationship with those whom He loved: Elect according to the foreknowledge of God…” Those whom He loved and chose, He also set apart for Himself, that is, He sanctified them (Jude 1).

Similarly, the Father sanctified the Son (i.e. set Him apart in the covenant of grace) and sent Him into the world (Jn. 10:36, He also sanctified His people (again, He set them apart in the covenant as His own special people) and “sent redemption” to them: “He sent redemption to His people: He hath commanded His covenant for ever: holy and reverend is His name “ (Ps. 111:9). It was precisely this group of people, i.e., those set apart in the covenant, who were redeemed by Jesus Christ: “For by one offering He hath perfected forever them that are sanctified” (Heb. 10:14).
The Galatians passage presents God the Father as the great Choreographer of salvation, dispatching (sending) the Son (v.4) and the Spirit (v.6) at the precise and appropriate time, in order to bring us into his family as His adopted sons. The Father who initiated the covenant also orchestrates and deploys the covenant requirements for salvation (Eph. 1:5).

In summary, God the Father planned everything and the Son concurred willingly with the strategic plan and executed his Father’s will (Lu.22:42). This occurred even before creation of invisible and visible things”. The promises of the Father to Jesus (because of the “faith of Jesus”) has come true, viz.,
1. Jesus’ death was imputed for mankind’s “second/irreversible death” to reconcile mankind to the Father.

2. That Jesus would be resurrected by the Father so the Holy Spirit would be received by him and given/sent to us.

3. That the Holy Spirit will imbue us (as it did Jesus at river Jordan) to seal us and sanctify us, so all of us will be one” (yet many) with the Father through his Son,…us being the “body of Christ“. The critical spirit-power needed before one is judged is the in-dwelling in man of this Holy Spirit and is the same for those before and after Christ’s return. 

4. That as the “flesh is weak it needs the Holy Spirit written in the fleshly tables of our heart for all of us to be empowered to follow the Law of Love which summarized the Ten Commandments and bear the “fruits of the Holy Spirit“. These laws were “written in tables of stones previously then subsequently by the Spirit-indwelling in our “fleshly tables of our hearts. This, so that we will have through spiritual growth and development the mind of Christ”, to be one with him and by extension one with the Father.

5. Our mortal flesh will be changed in a twinkling of an eye to immortal spirit bodies“, the body-composition for “eternal life. With this change, then and only then is the process complete and salvation comes to fruition away from “second and irreversible death“.

Those who have faith and works by the power of the Holy Spirit, given on faith and by grace, will reign in the Millenium and beyond.

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Original post: October 4, 2015
Revised and posted:February 20, 2017

Salvation Series 3, Who?

Salvation Series 3, Who?

After knowing what and why salvation is, who then can take us to it? Can we do it on our own?

In Gen. 2:16-17, it says, “And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” Subsequent events show that Adam & Eve violated this command. Their strategy to be like him” by their “own works” was not the plan of God. To have knowledge of “good and evil has to be given” to them and not for them to get it by themselves nor decide or define for themselves what is “good or evil. Only God defines “good or evil. Furthermore, this knowledge has to be written, not in tables of stone” but in the fleshly tables” of their heart and mind. (2 Cor. 3:3).

No one else can save us but Jesus. Notice, Acts 4:11-12 “He is the STONE WHICH WAS REJECTED by you, THE BUILDERS, but WHICH BECAME THE CHIEF CORNER stone. And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved.”

That Jesus is the “only way” (John 14:6) has been established even before the foundation of the world as in, “….the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.“(Rev. 13:8). This lamb was identified for us by God the Father himself through the testimony of John, “The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world”(John 1:29). See also, John 1:36 “And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!” Moreover, God the Father himself anointed Jesus coming out of water baptism from the Jordan river, baptizing him with the Holy Spirit signified by a dove dwelling on Jesus (Lu.3:22); the first historic in-dwelling of the Holy Spirit in man that empowered this man to overcome the Devil/Satan when he tempted man-Jesus. There is no other “perfect lamb” for sacrifice and “sweet savor” to God.

Jesus has been planned to be the Passover Lamb (I Cor. 5:7) who sacrificed his blood (died) for the remission (by his substitutionary death) of the sins of mankind (Matt. 26:28). God the Father can only count the death of this specific man-Jesus (anthropos) towards the death of mankind (I Cor. 15:3; 2 Cor. 5:21;Isa.53:6;Gal. 1:4; I Pet.2:24). And rightly so, since he is the Logos Creator in John 1:1 who voluntarily followed the Father to be incarnated; the same Creator God(Elohim) in Genesis 1, the YHVH Elohim/Lord God in Gen. 2, the El Shaddai (God Almighty) in Gen. 17:1-2 and the YHVH Elohim/ Lord God who is “one/echad” in Deut. 6:4. There is no one like him; he is “above all gods”(Ps. 95:3; Ps. 135:5).

The actual and proximate Creator God, the Lamb, is Jesus. He and the Father are separate”, distinct and unique yet “one”, as we will be “one” with him and the Father. Notice the following:

I Cor 8:6 New Living Translation
“But we know that there is only one God, the Father, who created everything, and we live for him. And there is only one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom God made everything and through whom we have been given”.

“There is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Messiah Yeshua” (1 Tim 2:5).

Notice, “I will proclaim the LORD’s decree: He said to me, “You are my son; today I have become your father(Ps.2:7). Not yesterday or tomorrow but today, meaning after the “river Jordan water baptism. GOD was not introduced as the “Father” and Jesus as the “Son” until after Jesus came out of the water and was confirmed by the Father himself, as in, “this is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased” (Matt.3:17;Mk.1:11); he identified Jesus himself. When there is a “son”, then there is a “Father”.

Consider also:
And the Father who sent me has himself testified concerning me. You have never heard his voice nor seen his form”(John 5:37).

From Jesus himself is his own testimony that no one has seen nor heard the Father referred to in the New Testament. Conversely, all the time from Genesis on, the specific “elohim had to be YHVH ELOHIM, the LOGOS according to John, who incarnated to man-Jesus (anthropos-Jesus to Paul), the Messiah Passover.

The Father is higher in hierarchy than Jesus; not equal; Father gives power to Jesus and he who gives is greater than the receiver ; the one who subjected everything has to be higher than the other. As Jesus being head of church is higher in hierarchy than anyone of us, though being “parts of his body”.

At the end, the Son of God will be “subject” to the Father as in, “when He (Jesus) delivers up the kingdom to the God and Father,… then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, that God may be all in all” (1 Corinthians 15.24-28).

Paul also emphasized this in Ephesians 4:6 “…one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.” The Father is over all Supreme.

And, to differentiate the two (although “one” as members of the body/church of Jesus is “one”), he wrote in Ephesians 6:23 “Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

To sum it up, Jesus is the only “way, the truth and the life“(John 14:16). He is the “who” will save us. Continue with Salvation Series 4, HOW?

Original post: October 4, 2015
Revised and posted:February 20, 2017

Salvation Series 2 Why?

Salvation Series 2 Why?

Why do we need to be saved from death and which of the 2 types of death?

To answer this question, one needs to go back to the narrative in Genesis. To quote,
Gen. 2:16-17 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.”

Gen. 3:1-5Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

From the preceding verses, we know that they sinned against God. Because of sin, God said that they would die. Notice though that Adam and Eve did not actually die right then and there. In fact, they were alive and God had to “cover” Adam and Eve up, as in, Gen. 3:21″Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them, signifying future “covering their sins“. Therefore, the “death” referred to as a consequence of this sin, specifically had to be the “irreversible death” that is eternal (until resurrected to immortality) and not the “reversible death” (temporary) that is “appointed” for all mortals (Heb. 9:27) Adam then lived 930 years (Gen. 5:5), died but to be resurrected in time appointed because it was a “reversible death”.

And that sin, that has a consequence of “irreversible death“, first requires “sin covering” or clothing with “coats of skinbefore the person can be saved. It had to be paid for, suffered and exacted to, with “someone else’s death“. Blood has to be spilled in Genesis to make “coats of skin” for clothing/covering of that sin.

By extension to the future, this prefigured the Passover Lamb in Exodus 12 that came to fruition in Christ “our Passover” (I Cor. 5:7; John 1:29; Isa.53:7) whose death was a “sin-offering“, a “cover (of skin) for sins”, a substitutionary death for us, to satisfy the required “sin-covering“. His death was accounted or imputed for mankind’s death that was a consequence of Adam’s sin.

The Father promised to acknowledge Jesus’ death as a substitute for Adam’s and, by extension, that of mankind’s “irreversible or eternal death“.  Notice, though, that while the immediate effect of Jesus’ deathreconciles” us back to God (2 Cor. 5:15-21; Col. 1:19-20; Heb. 9:19-22), we still need “to be saved by his life”(Rom. 5:10), i.e., Jesus has to “go away” (die) but be resurrected to life and to claim the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father in heaven to be sent to us (John 16:7), for a purpose that leads to actual salvation ahead. He has to be resurrected back to life, as by being alive he can then receive the Holy Spirit for us.

But, since this “irreversible second death” is a consequence of sin of Adam in Genesis, and Jesus’ death is imputed to that particular death thus reconciling us back to God, restoring the standing of Adam to the Father before he sinned, then why do we still suffer “reversible death”? Many traditional Christians incorrectly maintain that Adam would have lived forever had it not been for this sin. That, when Adam was created, he had an “immortal soul” and would not have died were it not for his sin. Is this teaching of “immortality of soul” true? The answer is alluded to in Genesis, the method of creation and our body-composition.

Immortal soul?

What is “soul“? This needs to be addressed before knowing whether it is “mortal or immortal“. Analysis is critical in understanding this concept of the word “soul” used to translate in English, the Hebrew word “nephesh” and the Greek word “psyche“. To do this, one has to go back to Genesis and take us through the step-by-step mechanism in the formation/creation of man.

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath (nhshamah) of life (chay); and man became a living soul(nephesh).” (Gen. 2:7). Notice here that “nephesh” was translated “soul“.

As the preceding verse connotes, man was formed by the “hand” of God (Isaiah 66:2) from “dust of the ground“, matter-composed. Whereas, the “breath of life” came directly and proximately from God, who did not use his hand nor “matter” like “dust of the ground“, and therefore spirit-composed. What was formed from “dust of the ground” was the “lifeless” physical body, viz., brain, heart and other parts of the body. This “lifeless body” became alive and got energized only when God directlybreathed into his nostrils” this “spirit-composed breath of life”. Then and only then did man become a”living soul“, a “nephesh” or breathing creature. Meaning, lifeless body from the ground+breath of life directly from spirit-composed Lord Creator=”living soul”; nephesh/breathing creature.

This tells us that a living being(human) has 2 components, viz., matter-composed body and spirit-composed breath of life before being classified or called as a “living soul/nephesh”. In Biblical parlance, one can deduce to a certain extent that the English word “soul” in the O.T. refers to a “living being/human“. The “body” has to be alive to be called “soul“(nephesh/breathing creature), hence the emphasis on the descriptive phrase “living soul” in Gen. 2:7. Otherwise, the body without the “breath of life”(nshamah chay) is “lifeless“. Nephesh or living creature/soul is a composite of “body(soma) and breath of life(nshamah).

Proof of these two separate components can be derived from the fact that each one can be destroyed or killed, as in:

Matthew 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body(soma), but are not able to kill the soul(psyche): but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul(psyche) and body(soma) in hell(Gehenna).” Notice that “breath of life“, Hebrew “nshamah chay” in Old Testament, is Greek “psyche” in New Testament and equivalent in English to “soul“. And, both can be destroyed, that’s why, even spirit-composed evil angels and Satan fear YHVH-Elohim.

Strictly speaking and to prevent misunderstanding, the English translation “soul” should have been limited by the “translator” and only be specifically applied to “living creature”(nephesh in Old Testament) composed of body/soma and “psyche“/ human spirit as the translated word “soul“(in New Testament) does not accurately convey the actual reference to the 2 separate components of man. Be that as it may, even if “soul” is meant to be “psyche or spirit-of-man“, it still can be killed and therefore not immortal. Both body and spirit-of-man/psyche-mind can cease or be killed and therefore not immortal. Furthermore, as the “psyche” (spirit-of-man; breath-of-life) can be killed or can cease, it is not synonymous with “soma“, nor a “spirit-composed immortal body“. 

From the above statements, it is clear that this “breath of life/psyche/nshamah“, which is part or a component of a “living being/soul“, is not “immortal” and can be killed. Notice though that the “breath of life/psyche/nshamah” at death(reversible as it is temporary) goes back to the Creator although can be killed in Gehenna fire, an irreversible/permanent death. It is the “soma/body/dust” that goes to the grave/hades/hell. Nevertheless, when we die and “thoughts perish”, meaning no longer can the body has remembrance, as the “soma/body/dust” is buried in hell/hades/grave and subsequently rots, but the “breath of life/psyche/nshamah” at time of death (reversible) goes back to the Creator, as in:

Ps.146:4 His breath (ruwach) goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish.” (No longer thinking when dead; no consciousness)

Ezekiel 18:4 “…the soul (living being) that sinneth, it shall die”. ( soul is not immortal)

Eccl.12:7Then shall the dust (aphar/clay/the body) return to the earth as it was: and the spirit (ruwach or breath in O.T and psyche in N.T) shall return unto God who gave it.”

Notice that, while the “soul“(spirit/breath of life/psyche) can be killed or destroyed, at “reversible death(sleep) it goes back temporarily to the Creator to wait for a future body at time of “resurrection“; the spirit/breath of life/psyche has no body and has to receive a new body, spirit-composed or flesh-composed, depending upon whether they are “overcomers with the in-dwelling of the Holy Spirit”. A “spirit-composed immortal body” will be given/ developed to those participating at the time of 1st resurrection who are “overcomers” and meet with Jesus “in the clouds” coming back at the start Millenium on earth. And we, who are alive in the “flesh” on this resurrection day will change “in a twinkling of an eye” (ICor. 15:52) from mortal to immortal (I Cor. 15:53-54), and meet Jesus and the rest of the “firstfruits” “in the air” (I Thes.4:17) to come down to earth and to the temple in Jerusalem. From here, Millenium starts and the “kingdom of God” ( the governing system) like a “stone” (Dan.2:35) will subsequently occupy the whole earth.

But the rest of the dead “live not again until after a thousand years” (Rev 20:5). And they are the ones who will participate in the “second resurrection” and will have a “flesh-composed mortal body, (Ezekiel 37:1-14) not immortal, and will experience, after voluntarily becoming believers, the in-dwelling of the Holy Spirit, bear “fruits of the Spirit” through sanctification and be given subsequently an “immortal body. Those who still continually reject this promise of the Holy Spirit will be thrown in “Gehenna fire” to suffer “eternal and irreversible death”.

Memory in Computer

Conceptually, computer technology can be used as a parallel. The spirit (psyche) of man is much like a “thumb-drive” or USB flash-drive that has all the “memory” or information/data in the memory hard drive that one can download from/into, save a copy that goes back to the owner. The whole computer (like our body) can be destroyed or die/rot, but the “breath of life/spirit”, (the memory and history of our unique life) that goes to the Creator, can then be “inputted” into a “new computer/body“. This new computer maybe “spirit-composed body”, much like in the “first resurrection” and immortal or “flesh-composed” as in the “second resurrection” and mortal. As the thumb drive can be destroyed, so can the “spirit/ruwach/breath of life” in Gehenna fire at Judgement Day after the ”second resurrection“.

By the way, the “spirit of man” is different from the “Spirit of God” that Jesus died for and resurrected for us to receive (“to in-dwell in us“) by grace and out of love by the Father. In a computer analogy, the Spirit of God can be equivalent to the “operating system“(O.S.), without whose power nothing can be “energized” or empowered.


In summary, when Adam was created, he came from the “dust of the ground”, matter and “flesh“, created by the “hand of God“. Being sinless originally, from the time of creation, does not confer in him eternal life as we were created “flesh-composed“. One can still die without sinning, just because we are mortal beings. In fact, and because of his sin, Adam was driven out of the garden of Eden and prevented from “eating the fruit from the tree of life”, signifying our natural and mortal composition is devoid of eternal life. As such, much like any “matter“, our body ages, deteriorates and has “expiration date”, being mortal. What is “born of flesh is flesh and that what is born of the spirit is spirit“(John 3:6). Also, in 1 Cor 15:44, ICor. 15:46 There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body…Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterwards that which is spiritual.” (the “natural” body is first – and the “spiritual” body is second.) The nature of our body-composition from creation is subject to decay and “first death/reversible“. At death, the spirit/psyche of man goes back to God, while the body is buried in the grave(hades).

Being “flesh“, the living body/soul, is “weak” (Matt. 26:41) and needs to be strengthened by the in-dwelling of the Holy Spirit from God. History of man shows the weakness of man to succumb to temptation. From, Adam, Noah, Abraham, Saul, David, even chosen people were overcome by evil. We all need the power given by God through the Holy Spirit. Changing us from this weakness requires “renewal or re-creating” of our ” natural weak self”, to have the “mind of Christ”.

Moreover, our present body-composition is “temporary“, much like the “tabernacle” or the “temple” that got destroyed. The tabernacle has been moved from one place to another, and the 1st and 2nd temple in Jerusalem have been destroyed, all signifying “temporal” nature. So is our body-of-flesh which is a temporarytemple of God”(I Cor. 3:16) that needed “change” from within a “ destruction” of self, for God to dwell into.

Our temporary body needs “re-creating“. Remember Jeremiah 18:1-4,

“The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord: “Arise, and go down to the potter’s house, and there I will let you hear my words.” So I went down to the potter’s house, and there he was working at his wheel. And the vessel he was making of clay was spoiled in the potter’s hand, and he reworked it into another vessel, as it seemed good to the potter to do.”
See also Isa. 45:9 and Rom. 9:21.

In short, humans die naturally even without sinning per se (although temporarily;sleep-death) because its body composition is flesh and mortal, but can also die eternally because Adam (and all humans by imputation) sinned. Human psyche/spirit has to be taught, guided and nurtured by the Holy Spirit of God, and thereby necessitating it’s in-dwelling.

What sequence of events that needs to occur to be saved from “second/irreversible” death? And, who then can take us away from it? Can we do it on our own? And how? To answer these questions, please access Salvation Series 3 & Salvation Series 4.

Original post: October 4, 2015
Revised and posted:February 20, 2017

PLEASE tap on hyperlinks for references.

Hyperlink posted 1/20/2021; Inauguration of POTUS46

Critique is welcome at foundationacts@

Salvation Series 1:What?

Salvation, Series 1:What

6 questions about salvation need answered? A SERIES of 6
This is a Series of Q&A regarding the topic of Salvation. The format in answering these questions is parallel to the “6 friends of Rupyard Kipling”.

What are we to be saved from? It is salvation from “death“. But, is there only one or two types of death? From a Biblical standpoint, there are 2 types of death. For the purpose of differentiation, they can be classified into:

1.”Reversible death” which is an actual death wherein everyone will resurrect from, being temporary, aka “sleep” as in:
Hebrews 9:27(KJV) “And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:”. This speaks of everyone’s “appointment with death and judgment”. All will die this type of death and it is temporary because everyone will be alive or resurrected to be judged (2 Cor. 5:10); only live person will be judged. Some verses that proved this death is considered “sleep“:

Psalm 13:3 (ESV):”Consider and answer me, O LORD my God; light up my eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death”.

1 Kings 1:20-21 (ESV): “And now, my lord the king, the eyes of all Israel are on you, to tell them who shall sit on the throne of my lord the king after him. Otherwise it will come to pass, when my lord the king sleeps with his fathers, that I and my son Solomon will be counted offenders.”

John 11:11-13 (ESV):”After saying these things, he said to them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I go to awaken him.” The disciples said to him, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will recover.” Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he meant taking rest in sleep.” Here, the disciples were assuming Jesus meant the “regular sleep” that we awake from. Actually , Jesus meant “reversible/temporary death” that Lazarus was resurrected to life with mortal body. By the way, Lazarus again died a “reversible/temporary death” and will be again resurrected at time appointed. Other examples are in the Bible, similar to Lazarus’ death

Acts 7:59-60 (ESV): “And as they were stoning Stephen, he called out, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” And falling to his knees he cried out with a loud voice, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them.” And when he had said this, he fell asleep.”

Some of those who experienced this “sleep of death“, specifically believers and overcomers, will be resurrected to eternal life at the second coming of Christ on earth to start the “Millennium“. Those who are alive, believers and overcomers, at Christ’s return will be “changed from mortal to immortal bodies”(I Cor. 15:51-53). These are the “firstfruits“(I Cor. 15:20, v-23; James 1:18, Rom. 8:23), the “fellow firstborn from the dead”(Rev 1:4; Rom. 8:29,; Col. 1:15-18). Also, in Luke 20:36 “…nor can they die anymore, for they are equal to the angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection.” (NKJV). Note that by resurrection, they become classified as “sons of God” as they have been changed from flesh-mortal-bodies to spirit-bodies.

But the “rest of the dead” will be resurrected after the “Millenium“(after Christ’s return) as in: Rev. 20:5-10But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years”. 

2.”Irreversible Death” which is actual death wherein there is no resurrection, aka “eternal death” or “second death”, i.e., “doomed to destruction forever“, death in the “lake of fire”, death of both body(soma) and soul (psyche/spirit). 

This concept emanates from the following:

And you shall not be afraid of those who kill the body that are not able to kill the soul rather be afraid of him who can destroy soul and body in Gehenna.”Matt. 10:28 Aramaic Bible in Plain English. Notice that the body(soma) and the soul(psyche/spirit) can be killed and ended forever.

Psalm 92:6-7 (ESV): “The stupid man cannot know;the fool cannot understand this:that though the wicked sprout like grass and all evildoers flourish,they are so doomed to destruction forever”.

Matthew 7:13-14 (ESV): “Enter by the narrow gate. For the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many.For the gate is narrow and the way is hard that leads to life, and those who find it are few.”

Philippians 3:18-19 (ESV): “For many, of whom I have often told you and now tell you even with tears, walk as enemies of the cross of Christ. Their end is destruction, their god is their belly, and they glory in their shame, with minds set on earthly things.”

Thessalonians 1:9 (ESV): “They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might.

Rev. 21:8 says: “But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.” Read also Rev 2:11, Rev 20:6 & 14. The second death is defined as dying in the “lake of fire”

So, which of these 2 types of death are we being saved from? Series 2 will try to explain which and Why?
Corollary to these 2 categories of death is the question of who dies at the battles of Armageddon and of Gog/Magog; will they still be resurrected?. When will those who died outside of these 2 battles be resurrected and in what body-composition? What is the timing in relation to Great White Throne Judgment? For answer to these tandem questions, please access subsequent Series.

But for now, go to Series 2: Salvation Why?

Original post: October 4, 2015

Dedicated the whole Salvation Series 1-6 to Evelyn whose loving support is invaluable and appreciated to umpteenth degree.

Please tsp hyperlink for references

Revised and posted:February 20, 2017

Hyperlink included 1/20/2021; Inauguration of POTUS46